Thursday, May 30, 2013

Reflections on the Failure of Socialism by Max Eastman

Status: One Round of QC (05.30.2013)


Fix Notes:

Page 119: par. 2: million

There are, according to the most conscientious estimates, fourteen millon slaves in GULAG, the slave empire ruled by the Soviet State Police.

Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Property in a Humane Economy by Samuel L. Blumenfeld

Status: One round of QC (05.29.2013)

Based off of ISBN: 0-87548-321-6


Fix Notes:

Page 29: par. 1: Mosaic (right at the beginning of this paragraph, it says "2. The Mosaic Law", and throughout the book it is Mosaic).

This right of ownership is presupposed in the details as well as in the broad outlines of the whole Mosiac legislation and by its application throughout Scripture.

Page 123: par. 3: decidedly

John Locke, for example, defined property with a decidely economic emphasis when he wrote:

Page 130: par. 0: differentiation

Like it or not, governments have asserted their responsibility for monetary affairs, virtually without exception, and without differ-entation as to the type of economic system.

Page 136: There are two footnote 13s.

Page 154: par. 1: Number 2 should be italics.

2. Debasement of coins.

Page 177: Footnote 73 is missing.

Page 199: par. 2: fairly

It is, however, a farily radical position. Perhaps we should look at the variants of ownership-by-claiming first.

Page 231-233: Footnote 6 is missing.

Page 267: Index: "Das Christusproblem: Grundlinien zu einer Sozialtheologie" is accidentally between “Christian Socialism,” and "Cicero, Marcus Tullius,"

Page 271: Index: Under "Labor": sacrifice

as scarifice

Page 277: Index: "Tenant in capite" and "Tenant in demesne" should not be the first in "T", and should be located later in the Index.


Page x+: The Introduction was the only chapter with the subheadings on the left-hand side, I made them in the center to match the rest of the book.

Problem in original PDF:

Metadata title was accidentally "Property in a Human Society"

Sunday, May 26, 2013

In Restraint of Trade: The Business Campaign Against Competition, 1918-1938 by Butler Shaffer

Status: One Round of QC (05.26.2013)


Fix Notes:

I made the image 1.6 ratio in this book, (1000x1600), instead of the usual 1.5 (800x1200). This may take longer to load on older devices. Hopefully everything runs smoothly.

I removed the ending LvMI information page, and replaced it with the typical EPUB LvMI page.

Page 103: par. 0: employees

“If we continue to adhere strictly to the theory that competition must continue regardless of the fate of the producer, it may become so keen as to deprive him of any return on capital invested and deny a living wage to his employes.”

Page 280: Index: At the end of "Pricing and production information", there should not be a semi-colon at the end, right before "Prigogine, Ilya"

Thursday, May 23, 2013

Two Essays by Ludwig von Mises by Ludwig von Mises

Status: One Round of QC (05.23.2013)


Fix Notes:

Page 62: bottom par. before footnote 2: system

The whole of society, says Lenin, becomes “one office and one factory, with equal work and equal pay,”1 the whole economy will be organized “like the postal sytem.”2

Wednesday, May 22, 2013

The Historical Setting of the Austrian School of Economics by Ludwig von Mises

Status: Few Rounds of QC (05.22.2013)


Fix Notes:

I decided to just rebuild this one from complete scratch. The book is only 25 pages in the PDF, so it took about two seconds to OCR the thing completely.

I then compared Amnet to mine in order to catch any mistakes I may have missed.


Page 2: par. 3: ex-Dominican (?)

Brentano, the exDominican, inaugurated a line of thought that finally led to Husserl's phenomenology.

Page 4: par. 4: Privat-Seminar

This interest enabled the present writer to organize a PrivatSeminar in the Twenties, to start the Economic Association, and to set up the Austrian Institute for Trade Cycle Research, that later changed its name to the Austrian Institute for Economic Research.

Page 4: bottom par.: Privat-Seminar should be italics.

The Privat-Seminar had no connection whatever with the University or any other institution.

Page 6: Footnote 4: Zeitschrift für Nationalökonomie

Only two chapters, which the author had published before the Anschluss, are preserved: “Böhm-Bawerk und die Brüsseler Zuckerkonvention” and “Böhm-Bawerk und die Konvertierung von Obligationen der einheitlichen Staatsschuld” in Zeitschrift fur Nationalokonomie, Vol. VII and VIII (1936 and 1937).

Page 7: par. 3: neo-positivism + hyper-positivism

We do not have to deal here with the state of affairs as it developed in the age of the neopositivism or hyperpositivism of the twentieth century.

Page 11. par. 0: God-given

[...] convinced that the foremost task of economists was to aid the "people" in the war of liberation they were waging against the "exploiters," and that the Godgiven leaders of the people were the dynasties, especially the Hohenzollern.

Page 12: par. 4: materialist

There was, first of all, radical materalist determinism, a philosophy almost universally accepted in Germany at that time by physicists, chemists, and biologists, although it has never been expressly and clearly formulated.

Page 19: Footnote 1: Missing italics

Cf. Herbert Spencer, The Study of Sociology, 9th edition (London, 1880), p. 217.

Page 21: par. 0: Accidental comma

Today the reaction of statism and socialism is sapping the foundations of Western civilization and well-being,.

Natural Elites, Intellectuals, and the State by Hans-Hermann Hoppe

Status: Few Rounds of QC (05.22.2013)


Based off of:


Fix Notes:

There also were a few punctuation mistakes in the HTML version (as in, using "dumb quotes" or "dumb apostrophes" or mistakes with the double hyphen (instead of em dash)).

I fixed all of those to make it consistent in the EPUB.

'%' occured 7 times, I replaced it with the word " percent"

How Can Europe Survive by Hans F. Sennholz

Status: One round of QC (05.22.2013)


Fix Notes:

Page 40: par. 2: denounces

Streit denonunces the former “League of Nations” and the present “United Nations” organizations as suffering from the shortcomings inherent in all leagues of government and states.

Page 49: Footnote 23: repetition

To avoid repitition we will confine ourselves to a short theoretical exposition of the problem and some elucidations mainly in the light of contemporary American ideologies and policies.

Pae 65: par. 1: America

A united Europe also, “thanks to its intermediate position between England and Amercia on the one side, and between Russia and East Asia on the other, and thanks also to the tradition and native gifts of its inhabitants, would be both able and fitted to be the cultural center of the world for a long time to come.”

Page 90: par. 0: acquisition

Both methods of socialization—legal acquistion of property and legislative and administrative control over property—are identical in their effects.

Page 151: par. 0: disastrous

[...]came disastrous to humanity and mankind.

Page 185: between tables: similarly

The uses of the French counterpart funds during the five years’ period by the French government are similiarly revealing.

Page 222: near bottom of page: commercial

The commerical bank then transfers the deposit to the central bank which reports it to the Bank for International Settlements.

Page 289: par. 2: misstatement

It is obvious that this is a flagrant mistatement.

Page 297: last par.: government

No business other than this preliminary loan must be negotiated between the government and any bank or institution dependent on the goverment on the one hand and the agency on the other hand.

Page 306: par. 2 sentence 2: entrepreneurial

Businessmen would have to readjust to the new condition. But this is their very entrepreneural function.

Page 311: last par.: significance

The North Atlantic Treaty Pact would lose its present tragic importance and signifiance or be wholly superfluous.

Page 324: Index under "Currency": "stabilzation" -> stabilization


Page 139: par. 1: bilateral (?)

It is an institution whose provisions on the full and automatic settlement of bilaterial balances are based on the “International Monetary Fund Agreement” of July 1944.

Page 322-323: Index: "Coal and Steel Community" continues onto page 323, but there is no (cont.)

Page 325: Index: Equalization, "price" has no page number, perhaps something is missing here?

Monday, May 20, 2013

Gold is Money by Hans F. Sennholz

Status: One Round of QC (05.20.2013)


Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 74-15161
ISBN: 0-8371-7804-5

Fix Notes:

Page right after cover: ECONOMICS


Page 32: bottom par.: the

Friedmanite monetary theorist Leland B. Yeager, who is willing to push thie reductio ad absurdum almost all the way by advocating separate moneys for each region or even locality, draws back finally at the idea of [...]

Page 61: "Author" should be moved down to the next line. All the other chapters have FIRST LAST ----- job, location

Page 71: par. 2: wrong quotation mark (should be right double)

In other words, it is not for some purely “technical“reason that we need convertibility into gold on demand, but because we cannot otherwise trust the issuers, whether banks or politicians, to limit the supply.

Page 83: end of the blockquote: commercial

[...] is a much better means of securing the integrity of the coinage than the use of scales and nitric acid on the part of all who have commerical dealings.19

Page 99: Footnote 15: Articles

ArticIes of Confederation, Article XI.

Page 109: par. 1: Americans

I dug into this subject some years ago because I was unhappy about generalizing from the American experience of 1875-1879 that Amercians know best.

Page 137: par. 1: Mitchell’s

Michell’s claim that greenbacks and other fiat currency caused the fall in real wages has been challenged by Alchian and Kessel.

Page 140: par. 3: government

The nation was wealthy, and the govenment had the power to lay taxes.

Page 160: par. 1: biblically

As a matter of fact, the Puritan and bibilically oriented nature of early America led to a return to weight.

Saturday, May 11, 2013

Say's Law and the Keynesian Revolution: How Macroeconomic Theory Lost its Way by Steven Kates

Status: One Round of QC (05.11.2013)

Thanks to Smiling Dave on the Mises forums for requesting this book.


Fix Notes:

Page 233: Index: "edn" is missing a period afterwards

Maitland, James, 8th Earl of Lauderdale 1962. An inquiry into the nature and origin of public wealth and into the means and causes of its increase (1804), ed. with an introduction and revisions appearing in the 2nd edn (1819) by Morton Paglin. New York: Augustus M. Kelley.

Page 232: Index: Vol. X under "Keynes, John Maynard." is missing a colon afterwards.

Page 234: Index: "edn," -> "edn."

Mill, John Stuart [1871] 1921. Principles of political economy with some of their applications to social philosophy, 7th edn, ed. with an introduction by Sir W.J. Ashley. London: Longmans, Green.

Page 248: Index, under "Niehans, J.": Missing period after "et al"

The new Palgrave see Eatwell, J. et al

Thursday, May 9, 2013

The Gold Standard: Perspectives in the Austrian School Edited by Llewellyn H. Rockwell, Jr.

Status: One Round of QC (09.30.2013)


Fix Notes:

Page 15: Footnote 2: States

2. With the exception of the United Staes, which entered the war in the spring of 1917, two and a half years after the other belligerents.

Page 17: First letter is missing dropcap

Page 21: par. 1: persuaded

Without any agreement, without legislative compulsion, in fact, even without any consideration of public interest and the public good, individuals are pursuaded to exchange their goods and services for more marketable goods, even if they are not needed for immediate use.

Page 22: par. 0: emphasize

In all his investigations he sought to apply his subjective value theory and emphsize its importance for the elucidation of economic phenomena.

Page 23: bottom par.: anamoly (UNCHANGED) (used throughout book)

He was greatly alarmed by the fact that the guilder's purchasing power exceeded the metal value of the silver guilder, which to him was an "economic anomality" harboring "the greatest dangers to the Austrian economy."

Page 34: Footnote 25: passing

25. Ibid., p. 310. On July 14, 1890, the Sherman Act, pasing both houses of the U.S. Congress, provided that the U.S. Treasury purchase 4.5 million ounces of silver monthly, against which legal tender notes, redeemable in gold or silver coins at the discretion of the Treasury, would be issued.

Page 58: Footnote 52: Missing a section? Or an accidental piece of an extra line? I erased the bold section.

52. Mises, "The Causes of the Economic Crisis: An Address," 1931 in On the Manipulation of Money and Credit, pp. 199-200.

ian Perspective

Page 76: Footnote 2: indestructibility

2. One early list of such characteristics includes (1) utility and value, (2) portability, (3) indestructability, [...]

Page 89: par. 1: version

The gold exchange standard was thus "an adulterated verson of the gold standard," "a machine for perpetual inflation."

Page 115: par. 1: economy-wide (UNCHANGED)

for the sake of particular modeling exercises, although the value of such exercises is questionable, especially when individual preference functions are defined over economywide aggregates that no individual confronts directly.

Page 122: par. 0: monopolized

This process of negative feedback is absent from a central banking system, where the supply of bank notes is monoplized and the liabilities of the central bank are held as reserves by commercial banks.

Page 122: par. 1: commercial

A central bank, by contrast, faces no rival for the circulation of its notes. Both its notes and its demand deposits may serve as reserves for commerical banks, displacing specie from that role.

Page 125: par. 1: lifting

This would require lifing any prohibitions, taxes, regulations, and legislated accounting rules that could serve as barriers to entry of alternative outside monies.


I moved the Bibliography to right before the Index.

I moved all of the "Footnotes" on each first page of the chapter to the very end of the chapter right before the "Notes" section.

The footnotes in the Introduction are in the superscript format, while the rest of the book has them in the format of "##."

Wednesday, May 8, 2013

Interpretations of the Wicksellian Idea by Robert Bradley Jr.

Status: Incomplete (Missing page 44) (05.08.2013)


Fix Notes:

Table of Contents: Chapter Six sub. 3: Heritage

3. Controversies Within the Wicksellian Herritage

Page i: par. 1: praxeological

In many of the most prestigious graduate departments of the United States and England, there presently exist brave and brilliant souls who master orthodox economics as well as praxiological economics.

Page 4: par. 2: entrepreneurial

But most of all, as he would later emphasize, Wicksell saw the lower interest rates as fueling an entrepeneurial boom leading to increased factor market activity.

Page 6: par. 1: entrepreneur

But, powered by "more of the same" expectations, entrepeneurs continue their inflationary factor market actions, fully expecting their final product prices to rise (as before), making the higher costs of borrowing affordable.

Page 6: par. 1: scarce

Eventually, the producers no longer can afford, in light of the cost of money, to pressure prices upward for scarse factor services.

Page 7: bottom par.: system

Neutrality in Wicksell's sytem is characterized by the stable price level, the equality of savings and investment, and an interest rate equaling the marginal productivity of capital.

Page 7: bottom par.:

To Wicksell, this not only is the real world counterpart to the Walrasian general equilbrium, but it is also the "ideal position, affording common advantage to the overwhelming majority of the various groups of interests [...]

Page 9: very last sentence: entrepreneurs

If, contrarily, the entrepeneurs had static expectations, reacting to [...]

Page 14: par. 2: entrepreneurial

To ideally find a measure of the yield of real capital, Myrdal postulated a world containing a single factor of production, a single final product, fixed relative prices, a given interest rate, a stable unit of account, and observable and uniform entrepreneural expectations.

Page 15: Right before subchapter 3: Entrepreneur

Entrepeneurs simply respond steadily to depreciation, and, therefore, any tendency toward a cumulative process is aborted.

Page 17: par. 0: entrepreneurs

For instance, imagine, along with Myrdal, that entrepeneurs perceive a more optimistic future, but that capital values remain unchanged by an increase in the market (money) rate of interest.

Page 17: par. 3: discussed

A final and highly important situation, one "often disucssed in the literature", is postulated by Myrdal—an increase in savings. Here, stability is upset since R2 decreases (as discussed above), yet free capital disposal (W) does not.

Page 18: par. 1: scarce

Myrdal was aware of a group of theorists who saw credit as scarse in the depression and alleviated by stronger decisions to save.

Page 19: par. 2: approximately

Deviations from this signal a cumulative tendency away from this and can be approximatley measured by the amount gains and losses regarding revenue/cost and investment.

Page 19: par. 2: anticipated

In the downward phase, revenue and cost gains would be negative while actual investment cost would be less than anticiapted cost.

Page 20: par. 1: entrepreneurs

This required that prices be weighted according to both their "stickiness of reaction" and "relative importance in the calculation of profitability by entrepeneurs and consequently in the volume of real investment."

Page 21: par. 1: normatively

And, normativley speaking, the goal of this equilibrium has been the desire "to eliminate completely or at least to mitigate the business cycle' "

Page 24: Footnote 29: Ex post

Ibid., p. 114. Ex poste, one would always find equality between invested capital and real investment since bookkeeping procedures are used in this way. See pp. 116-118.

Page 24: Footnote 33: Walrasian

Ibid., p. 133. Myrdal seemed to have the Wahasian equations in mind when he spoke of relative price equilibrium.

Page 27: par. 1: entrepreneurs

The eclecticism of Robertson most clearly surfaces when he proffers his analysis of boom and bust. Along Schumpeterian lines, he identifies the boom with ’’numerous errors of judgment and forecast” on the part of the entrepeneurs which lead to an ’’artificial lengthening of the period of production.”

Page 29: list item 3: entrepreneurs

(3) Secondary Savings, which results from the increased incomes (and thus savings) of the entrepeneurs benefitting from the bank’s money and loan policies.

Page 30: par. 0: aggravated + entrepreneur

This upward price movement is aggrevated by the need for more loans by businessmen (from the inflation of costs), the lengthening of the structure (or average period) of production caused by merchants' anticipations of higher selling prices, and dishoarding by the public and entrepeneurs.

Page 30: par. 2: pressures

But the link between monetary policy and the demand for lacking by businessmen is finally secured by Robertson when he admits that an increase in the supply of lacking can come about to meet the demand perssures by "extorting it from the general public through the multiplication of currency."

Page 31: par. 1: Footnote 26 was accidentally "16"

For instance, why was there an increased demand by lacking and what misled the entrepreneurs into overestimating the supply of lacking? And though it was recognized that the output of consumer and capital goods in the cycle was of a "marked difference",16 [...]

Page 39: par. 1: post

Savers and investors themselves lack the "possibility of intelligent foresight designed to equate savings and investment" and cannot ex poste undo the irreversability.

Page 42: after blockquote: Wicksell's

Indeed, Wickell’s previous influence was not to compete with the new directions given to aggregative economics by the 1936 Keynes, for reasons our final chapter will review.

Page 48: Footnote 17: ceterus

Ibid., pp. 177, 194. He argues: "Every effective alteration of bank rate must be associated (ceteus paribus) by some alteration in the quantity of bank money.”

Page 54: par. 3: extension

Mises points out that "the moment must eventually come when no further extention of the circulation of fiduciary media is possible."

Page 56: par. 2: scarce

As before mentioned, the bank inflation, originally causing both capital good prices and profits to swell, leads to higher prices for consumer goods since (1) they lose production resources to higher stages and thus become more scarse and (2) consumer preferences reassert demand to these industries.

Page 58: par. 1: entrepreneurs

In this regard, Hayek makes the distinction between entrepeneurs who are victims of "justified errors" rather than "sheer errors" since they were "misled by following guides or symptoms which as a rule prove reliable."

Page 59: bottom par.: entrepreneurial

Mises, similarly, saw the inevitability of non-neutral money giving rise to entrepeneurial error resulting from bad prices, but believed that systematic error of this kind was possible only from a general credit expansion.

Page 60: Footnote 5: entrepreneurs + that

Ibid., p. 95. The latter possibility of mass error in the face of correct prices by entrepeneurs is pronounced untenable by Hayek on the empirical grounds tht profits are perceived and losses avoided with notable success.

Page 61: Footnote 29: Expectations

Lachmann, Capital, Expectatoins and the Market Process (Kansas City: Sheed, Andrews and McMeel, Inc., 1977), p. 79. This 1943 essay was responded to by Mises in an essay of the same year, " ’Elastic’ Expectations and the Austrian Theory of the Business Cycle", Economics (Aug. 1943), pp. 251-252.

Page 74: par. 0: desperately

The Wicksellian heritage up till now has been mostly a macroeconomic inspired one; toward the future it desparately needs to be a microeconomic tradition as well.

Page 78: Bibliography: Lachmann

Lachman, Ludwig M., Capital and its Structure (Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel, 1978, 1956).

Large problems:

Missing page 44

Page 13-15: Missing footnote 10

Page 15: Missing a "title" for formula 3?


This book had "* * *" instead of ellipsis (I think). I kept the * * * format.

Underline can easily be changed to italics in the CSS.

I recreated high quality images of formulas #1-#3 on pages 14-15 (This time I exported as "1000 dpi" instead of the 1200px wide (this lead to differing font sizes in the formulas)). I am not too sure about formula 2's exact original intention. In the original, the "e1/r1" has no superscripts, but it "goes to" e^n/r^n...... which makes me think it should have been a "e^1/r^1". Also, in the explanation of the formula, it says:

"ei = net return of firm i, and
ri = the cost of reproducing real capital for firm i."

Should these 'i's be superscript as well so that it becomes:

"e^i = net return of firm i, and
r^i = the cost of reproducing real capital for firm i."

I assume this was just a limitation of the typewriter (or whatever tool was used to originally design this in 1979). If it IS a summation going from i=1 to n, that means that the equation can be simplified to sum of (e^i)/(r^i). I made the change, but just wanted to make note of this just in case I am interpreting it wrongly.

I also tried a little something different with the image resizing, hopefully this code also carries over to the Kindle versions.

Monday, May 6, 2013

Leviathan in Crisis by Waldo Ralph Browne

Status: One round of QC (05.06.2013)


Based off of the scan here:

I converted to Black and White, and cleaned up many of the markings. I also removed a few pages of front/back matter.

As a side note, the cover is HORRENDOUS quality (I should have just tossed it out and saved a few KBs).

Fix Notes:

Page 171: bottom par.: artificial

This artifical theory of the sovereign State was doomed to failure, for men, even when Hobbes was writing, were all the time denying

Page 215: end of par. 0: menace

Long before the final debacle of Roman society, the end of ancient civilization was forecast in the growing menance of the turbulent lower classes.

Page 219: last par.: campaign

For what a church this new one is—a soulless mechanism to which men look for the redemption of the world and salvation from themselves; its creed the teachings of Rousseau; its priesthood the professional politician; its acolyte the policeman; its offering the income tax; its litany the party compaign; its communion the exercise of the vote; its sacrament the baptism of war; its Heaven business prosperity passed around; its dreaded Hell its own logical end in the dictatorship of the proletariat; and its God the self-idolatry of “the People” as mass!

Page 270: bottom par.: disintegration

Scarcely a century has elapsed before the distintegration of the system is apparent to everyone.

Page 276: par. 0: governments

Except where I broaden the term specifically to include all capitalist-democratic goverments, I shall be using “crisis State” in the more specific sense of the left-wing governments.

Page 319: par. 2: sacrificed

Thousands of lives would be sacrified to confirm the principle of sovereign, independent exclusiveness.

Page 351: The left margin of the page is cut off (many missing letters) (I took educated guesses as to what the words were)

Sunday, May 5, 2013

Dissent on Keynes: A Critical Appraisal of Keynesian Economics Edited by Mark Skousen

Status: Almost Complete (v.3)


This EPUB was requested by user fegeldolfy on the Mises forums.

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 91-27161
ISBN: 0-275-93778-X

Fix Notes:

Page 58: par. 0: Leontief:

Keynes’s implicit assumption that the labor supply is perfectly elastic at some inflexibly downward money wage rate was perceptively likened by Leontiff to a minimum-wage rate.

Page 134: par. 1: behavioural

Interpreters such as John Hicks (1937) and Alvin Hansen (1947), whose focus penetrated Keynes’s cloud of uncertainty, have identified a set of behavorial relationships which, together with the corresponding equilibrium conditions, imply determinate values of total income and the interest rate.

Page 136: par. 0: contrasting

While many of the conflicting claims can be reconciled in terms of the short-run and long-run orientation of Keynesians and Monetarists, respectively, and in terms of their constrasting philosophical orientations, neither vision takes into account the workings or failings of the market mechanisms within the investment aggregate.

Page 194+: Missing Footnote 15 (This one needs looking into to try to determine where exactly it should be placed)

Page 199: Missing Subchapter I (?)

Page 208: par. 0: determining

This proportion, and the time-preference schedule determing it, will change unpredictably, depending on the time preferences of the hoarders and nonhoarders and on how the changing demand for money ripples through the market economy.

Page 215: Two footnote 18s on the page (the top one should be changed to 17).

Page 231: Serfdom

———. 1944. The Road to Serfdum. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Page 242: Empirical

Vorhies, Frank, and Fred Glahe. 1988. “Political Liberty and Social Development: An Empirial Investigation,” Public Choice 58 (July), 45-71.

Page 247: Index: Under "Haberler, Gottfried": recovery

economic reovery, 105

Page 250: Index: Pèlerin

Mont Pelerin Society

Friday, May 3, 2013

Elementary Lessons in Logic by William Stanley Jevons

Status: Digitized Images (05.10.2013)

Cleaned PDF:!poJiFRAR!SItBBCGNkUi2z5NN12vr8w5kpioekNpr-2DLzIJpr2s

This book was requested by the commenter Sergio.

A great thanks goes out to user myhumangetsme from the Mises forums, he spent a lot of time digitizing all of the figures/diagrams in this book. Now we have very high quality PNGs.

Could use a few more very close checks on all of the Greek characters (I tried my best to make all accents as accurate as possible).

Fix Notes:

Based upon this version:

Replaced pages:

199, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212.

using this scan:


Page 70-71: bottom par. - top par.: no negative indent (matching the rest of the book) (Example, see page 110-111)

Page 159: bottom par.: no negative indent

Page 169: par. end of Lesson IX: no negative indent

Page 211: Bottom of page: spectrum

Therefore the lightest metal known is the metal indicated by a spectum of one bright red line.

Page 231: bottom par. (end of page): generally

The geologist again is gene-nerally a simple observer when he investigates the nature and position of rocks.


Page 48: Missing Greek characters in the middle of page.