Friday, October 18, 2013

Freedom, Society and the State by David Osterfeld

Status: One Round of QC (10.18.2013)


I spent a nice chunk of time recreating the images digitally using Inkscape (hopefully my skills with this get better and better the more I do them). Here are comparison screenshots:

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Fix Notes:

Page xii: par. 0: contemporary

Addressing himself directly to these misperceptions, David Osterfeld throws a great deal of light upon the topic of human freedom in comtemporary times.

Page 1: par. 1 (right below Chapter 1): anarcho-capitalists

Because the anarchists propose that a definite economic institution, the market, replace the political institution of government, they have been variously referred to as "free market anarchists," "anarco-capital-ists," and "individualist anarchists."

Page 2: par. 0: political

And, while acknowledging "Stirner’s complete rejection of all polictical, moral, and traditional ties of the individual," [...]

Page 3: par. 0: American

And the American anarchist, Benjamin Tucker, contended that there were "two schools of Socialistic thought,” the State Socialism of Karl Marx and the Anarchism of Proudhon and the Amnerican Josiah Warren.

Page 3: par. 0: minarchists

[...] and the twentieth century followers of classical liberalism, the minarachists, have followed their mentors in rejecting anarchism.

Page 5: par. 2: government

All money spent by governemnt is useless, says Kropotkin, since there is a definite relationship between crime and poverty.

Page 7: very end of page: anarcho-collectivism

Once this plateau of plenty is reached, the structures of anarcho-communism and anarch-co11ectivism [...]

Page 9: bottom par.: syndicalism

Not only would sydicalism have to make entrepreneurial decisions, just as is done under capitalism, but one must question whether "workers’ control" is even possible.

Page 10: bottom par.: between

The three cornerstones of Proudhon’s ideal society are contract, exchange, and property. The state is to be abolished and all relations betwen individuals and collectives are to be handled by contract.

Page 16: par. 2: monopolies

The way to eliminate these monoplies is "by subjecting capital to the natural law of competition, thus bringing the price of its use down to cost."

Page 19: bottom par.: government

While Hospers feels that statutory law, and thus a governemnt, is necessary to insure a rule of law, [...]

Page 26: below section e: minarchism

The objectivists, headed by Ayn Rand, may be viewed as a variant of minarachism.

Page 28: par. 1: Government

"Mr. Smith, a customer of Goverment A, suspects that his...neighbor, Mr. Jones, a customer of Government B, has robbed him,"

Page 30: par. 0: miniscule

Of this problem, Mises can merely hope that the majority will exercise such self-restraint that government will remain miniscle.

Page 37: bottom par.: spectrums

Moreover, the place of the individualist anarchists in both the economic and the political sepctrums has been pointed out, and the initial groundwork has been laid for the study of individualist anarchism.

Page 41: Footnote 43: Encyclopedia

Enclyclopedia of the Social Sciences

Page 47: near bottom of page: opinion + theoretical

[...] for the maintenance of order in their communities, on the force of public opinion, this introduces the possibility of the "tyranny of public opinon" in anarchist as well as democratic societies. Thus, "authoritarian-anarchism” is at least a theorectical possibility.

Page 52: bottom par.: democracy

[...] a tyrant, a group of individuals--an oligarchy, or a majority--a democaracy, such "human rights" as those of freedom of speech, [...]

Page 56: par. 0: ownership

Second, it is argued that "It is physically impossible for everyone to keep continual tabs on everyone else and thereby to exercise his equal quotal share of partial ownerhsip over every other man.

Page 70: Footnote 27: Sennholz

On Freedom and Free Enterprise, ed. Mary Senholz (Princeton: Van Nostrand, 1965), pp. 225-35.

Page 70: Footnote 28: Epistemological

For a fuller presentation of this position see my "Reflections on the Substantive and Epitemological Aspects of the Rothbardian Natural Rights Ethic," [...]

Page 83: par. 0: surprising

[..] latter is the embodiment of violence while the former entails voluntary and peaceful exchange of goods, it should not be suprising that the political means gain at the expense of the economic.

Page 84: par. 2: mighty + government

For if a judicial decree of ’unconstitutional’ is a mightly check to government power, an implicit or explicit verdict of ’constitutional’ is a mighty weapon in fostering public acceptance of ever-greater goevernment power."

Page 86: bottom par.: enthusiasm

For wars, at least our modern "democratic" wars which depend for their success on mass support and enthusiam, are invariably presented in terms of a struggle for righteous and humanitarian goals.

Page 88: par. 0: important

[...] have several imporant consequences. First, in an effort to stimulate production, price controls for the factors of production will also have to be imposed.

Page 90: par. 1: psychologically

But as Rousseau recognized, and a plethora of sociologists of whom Emile Durkheim was only the most famous have confirmed, man is simply not equipped, psyhologically, to live in such an atomized and uncertain environment.

Page 92: par. 2: libertarianism

While this analysis of contemporary society is profound, as a criticism of libertairianism it is based on a misunderstanding.

Page 97: below Figure 2: concentrated

While they are useful for analytical purposes there are few if any "elitists” who believe that power is concentrationed in the hands of a single person or even a few individuals; similarly, there are few if any "pluralists” who claim that power is infinitely diffused throughout society.

Page 98: right above blockquote: sociologist

[...] wrote Italian political sociolo-ist Gaetano Mosca,

Page 103: below figure 4: electorate

In fact, what is most interesting is that the better informed the electroate, the greater the incentive for collusion.

Page 105: par. 2: responsive

This too is a comforting theory. Government is reponsive to the public, this time not as expressed through political parties but through interest groups.(56)

Page 112: Footnote 35: eliminating

The individual desires to relieve this stress by eliminat-ting the conflict between his actions and his beliefs.

Page 117: par. 2: Luxemburg

The competing Marxist theory propounded by Rosa Luxemberg argues that since the capitalist mode of production is predicated upon the exploitation of the workers by the capitalists, [...]

Page 124: par. 3: justification

But, continues Flynn, it will probably not be possible to maintain this heavy military spending without public support and that, in turn, requires a justifica-cation for the spending.

Page 125: par. 2: commercial

One important consequence of this according to John Hagel is that "commerical activity abroad will therefore be increasingly supplemented by long-term investment in producing facilities

Page 126: par. 1: further

But the government guarantee of foreign investment in turn serves to encourage still futher investment abroad, which therefore intensifies the demand on government for still more guarantees.

Page 126: bottom par.: information

Inflation short-circuits, as it were, the informa-mation flow of the price mechanism and leads the entrepreneurs to grossly overestimate the actual demand for their products.

Page 127: par. 2: Footnote "20" should be 29.

Page 128: par. 1: international

For the short-run reason of lifting the country out of the depression and for the long-run reason of preserving and promoting an internatonal economic order conducive [...]

Page 128: par. 1: promises

[...] despite its promies of abundance, necessitates great personal and financial sacrifices, [...]

Page 128: par. 1: elsewhere

[...] or adventure on the heroic model touching deeply the springs of chauvinistic pride, interest and feeling," or, he says elsewere, [...]

Page 128: par. 2: international

For the short-run reason of lifting the country out of the depression and for the long-run reason of preserving and promoting an internaitonal economic order conducive to American dominance,

Page 129: par. 2: necessary

Roosevelt justified his Pacific policy by claiming that his actions were necesssary to preserve peace. The anarchist’s view [...]

Page 131: bottom par.: throughout

But this, in itself, does not prove that it is imperialistic, i.e., that U.S. foreign policy has been designed to promote and protect American corporate interests thoughout the world.

Page 132: blockquote: political

It rather conclusively shows that genuine security fears; ideological anticommunism; expansionist idealism; or other policical, strategic, or psychological factors have been at the roots of the United States postwar policies including interventionist. . . behavior.

Page 136: bottom par.: themselves + military

If the interventionist country were militarily strong, or at least stronger than its neighbors, war or imperialism could well present themsleves as solutions to both of these problems. If the foregoing is correct then one would expect to find that, assuming approximately equal miliatary power, the more rigidly controlled the economy the more

Page 137: par. 0: dismantling

On the other hand, such policies as the systematic economic rape of Eastern Europe by the Soviet Union, including the dislman-tling of entire factories and their transfer to Russia, certainly suggests that it is imperialistic.

Page 138: par. 1: This

Ths distinction is unfounded.

Page 138: par. 1: Singapore

Countries such as Singpore, Hong Kong, Taiwan, South Korea and Brazil have all become major exporters of electronic equipment such as TVs and radios.

Page 138: par. 2: manufacturing

This would depend upon such factors as what resources a country needed but had to import, what manufacturing industries it possesses and the relative mixture of resource extraction and manaufacturing.

Page 139: par. 1 (near halfway): This

Ths last option is logical only on the assumption that it was Roosevelt’s intention to get America into the war.

Page 139: par. 1 (near bottom page): possibility

Another explanation is that Roosevelt sincerely believed that the total destruction of Western civilization was a distinct possiblity in the absence of American intervention against Nazi Germany.

Page 140: par. 1: while

Thus, whlie one cannot dismiss the possibility that at least some wars have been caused primarily by the attempts of political [...]

Page 140: bottom par.: political

[...] he was still a fairly obscure leader of a minor politcal party.

Page 143: Footnote 10: University

(Athens, Ohio: Univeristy of Ohio Press, 1974);

Page 154: par. 1: philosophy

What Plato desired was the replacement of the "opinions" of politics by the "truth" of philosphy.

Page 168: par. 0: ignorance

With a view of securing such freedom among its members it is as certainly within the province of the State to prevent children from growing up in that kind of ignornance which practically excludes them from a career in life, as it is within its province to require the sort of buildings and drainage necessary for public health.

Page 172: Footnote 8: "Jean-Jacque Rousseau" needs to be "Jean-Jacques Rousseau"

Page 174: Footnote 32 doesn't exist.

Page 174: Footnote 39: utilitarianism

For a brilliant critique of utilitariansim from a slightly different angle

Page 182: par. 1: sovereignty

Hence, the soveriegnty of the individual required the complete individualization of society which, in turn, implied that every individual bear the cost of his own actions. As Warren put it:

Page 185: par. 2: burden

Cost being the limit of price would put a stop to all fluctuations in prices and in trade, . . . compel every one to produce as much as he consumed, would distribute the burthern of labor among all, and reduce the [...]

Page 187: bottom par.: uncertainty

The "cost" of any loan transaction, however, would include all sacrifice or burden endured by the lender, including that of uncertainity or risk.

Page 190: par. 0: exchange

As Heywood remarked, "since money is the common measure of products, and exhange must be made in the accepted currency, [...]

Page 193: par. 1: acquisition

Since the notes would be non-interest-bearing, they would be redeemable only in products, and, hence, the only reason any individual would have for joining the bank would be to facilitate the acquisiton of money.

Page 196: par. 1: equivalent

If, then, land titles were based on the principles of equity, viz., the exchange of labor for an equival-lent amount of labor, ownership could not extend beyond actual occupancy and rent would be eliminated.

Page 203: par. 1: obligation

Consequently, man has no legal obli-igation to others except that which he voluntarily contracts to accept.

Page 207: bottom par.: applicability

[...] will be submitted to juries which will judge not only the facts, but the justice of the law, its applicabiliity to the given circumstances, and the penalty or damage to be inflicted because of its infraction ."

Page 208: bottom par.: competition

Patents, copyrights, and tariffs restricted or eliminated competiton in the areas of their application, thereby [...]

Page 209: par. 1: themselves

Under the influence of free competition, he said, "it will make no difference whether men work for themsleves, are employed or employ others.

Page 213: Footnote 1: Intellectual

"The Intellectural and Political Roots of the Older Austrian School,"

Page 217: Footnote 42: "Vo. V" should be "Vol. V"

Page 217: Footnote 48: "Wiliam Reichert" should be "William Reichert"

Page 220: Footnote 90: specifically

For a good article dealing specificially with the journal Liberty see Carl Watner,

Page 221: par. 1: paradigm

The individualist anarchist paradign is a synthesis of philosophical anarchism with modern economics.

Page 223: par. 1: priorities

There are three problems of coordination that must be solved in any socio-economic system: [1] the problem of priortities, i.e., [...]

Page 227: bottom par.: acquiescence

But in such a society voluntary acquiesence is highly improbable.

Page 232: par. 1: political

[...] I believe, the path taken by such poltical scientists as Robert Dahl, [...]

Page 232: par. 3: Lasswell

But if the Dahl-Lawwell-Kaplan approach is followed power is clearly not ubiquitous.

Page 237: par. 1: situation

The siutuation is identical for acts of private discrimination.

Page 243: below section c: official

Approximately 12 percent of the population of the United States have, according to offical statistics, incomes below the poverty line.

Page 247: par. 5: productivity

The root of the problem, therefore, is not the low productivitiy of the unskilled worker.

Page 248: par. 1: eliminate

But the effect of such regulations as the minimum wage and licensing restrictions is to eliminiate just those jobs

Page 249: par. 2: slumlord

This is unfortunate but not only is he not responsible for this condition, the slumloard, regardless of his motives, helps the poor make the best of their bad situation.

Page 249: par. 3: disappeared

Consider what would happen, Block asks, if slums and slumlords suddenly disapeared.

Page 251: par. 0: entrance

But if the monopolist would then try to recoup his losses after such a purchase by raising prices, he would only encourage the entrace of new competitors, thus necessitating the "buying out” process all over again.

Page 253: par. 0: political

[...] desire to represent the views of the community, the signals conveyed to the politcal leaders will almost invariable depart from the actual state of demand by the community.

Page 255: par. 1: money

It then becomes clear that this moeny did not represent additional saving but only the illusion of additional saving.

Page 257: par. 1: stabilize

According to the proponents of contra-cycl1ca1 policies, government is supposed to stablilize the economy by reducing taxes and increasing expenditures in times of economic downturns in order to increase aggregate spending and thus stimulate the economy.

Page 261: par. 2: skyscraper

Since Larry has a large family and a risky occupation, being a window washer on a skyscrapper, he desires considerable coverage.

Page 262: right below Figure 2: preferred

[...] the election, his perferred position was adopted.

Page 263: bottom par.: anarchists

With this in mind we can now examine the specifics of the anarachists paradigm.

Page 266: Footnote 24: "Laswell" should be "Lasswell"

Page 266: Footnote 25: Kalleburg

As Kallenburg makes clear, the two techniques are not inherently mutually exclusive but may at times be complementary.

Page 269: Footnote 57: Armentano

Also see D. T. Armantano, The Myths of Antitrust

Page 270: Footnote 61: Sennholz

Page 270: Footnote 65: "American's Great Depression" should be "America's Great Depression"

Page 277: blockquote: competition

The competi-tition between owners along each of these passages will tend to keep the price down.

Page 279: par. 0: downtown

[...] safe roads into and throughout the dowtown area.

Page 283: par. 1: There is two Footnote "18"s. I changed the second one to 19.

Page 284: par. 2: absence

But in the absense of compulsory state education these controversies would disappear, for a wide variety of educational alternatives would present themselves on the free market.

Page 287: par. 2: unreliable

Thus, an un-realiable testing agency would soon face bankruptcy.

Page 288: par. 0: probability

[...] probablility of better overall results for children under the free educational system seems clear.

Page 289: par. 2: furnish

Further, they believe that a private voluntary educational system would be able to funish high quality education at a lower cost than any alternat1ve.

Page 292: bottom par.: situation

While such reforms might prove successful in the very short run, the belief that such a stituation can be maintained is akin to believing that water can run uphill.

Page 309: par. 2: exclude

On the contrary it is that the supplier may be in a position to exlude would-be users by charging a fee well in excess of marginal costs.

Page 311: bottom par.: Company

Company A would make it easy for its subscribers to call the subscribers of Company B, and Company B would do the same for the subscribers to Comapny A -- [...]

Page 314: par. 1: paradigm

In short, up to this point the libertarian pradigm must be pronounced sound.

Page 315: Footnote 2: "Public Services Under Laiseez Faire" should be "Public Services Under Laissez Faire"

Page 316: very end of Footnote 37: Stanford

(Stanford: Standford University Press, 1961).

Page 317: near end of Footnote 38: "Drug Prohibiton" should be "Drug Prohibition"

Page 326: bottom par.: legislation

But if law need not be a command from above, i.e., either enacted by a legistature or imposed by a king, how did it emerge and, more importantly, acquire validity for the members of the society?

Page 327: par. 2: significance

Whatever the relation between custom and legislation in ancient Roman law, there can be little doubt as the relatively greater signficance of custom in the English common law.

Page 328: par. 1: decision

Since a judge’s decision was immediately binding only on the parties to a dispute, and since a single maverick decison would have little impact on the body of the law, a single judge was helpless to change the law.

Page 332: par. 1: flexibility

It is probably impossible to say precisely what is the "best" mix of stability and flexibilty.

Page 335: bottom par.: axiom + incompatible

The anarchist replied that the natural rights minarchist was himself in a contradiction since the libertarian ”non-aggression axion" was, strictly speaking, imcompatible with government. Probably both are right: the anarchist because government is inconceivable without at least some initiated coercion; and the minarchist because there is little doubt that the common law would ever become the complete exemplification of pure libertarianism.

Page 338: end of blockquote: more enforcement

Thus, a substantial move toward standardization would occur in the treatment of crimes of violence and infractions of commercial codes, while diversity would persist in the demand for mores-enforcement.

Page 339: par. 1 (near middle of page): building

This law would be binding only on the parties directly concerned and would last only as long as the individual remained a tenant in that buiding.

Page 343: bottom par.: difficulty

There would be no diffculty if both courts reached the same decision.

Page 346: bottom par.: unreliable

The anarchists believe that this would be unlikely since, argue the Tannehills, such a man would be very unrealiable and other businessmen would, out of their own self-interest, cease doing business with him.

Page 350: par. 0: Friedman

[...] be suicidal," Freidman says, for "unless they maintained a reputation for honesty, they would have no customers [...]

Page 351: par. 2: philosopher

But philospher John Hospers argues that the agency could also use its dominant position to victimize rather than to protect "its" clients.

Page 351: bottom par.: irresistible

But if the advantages of being a client of the dominant agency are so irresistable, and if, as Nozick comments, "economies of scale" are positively correlated with increased size, the "the protection agency of optimal size will include the whole world."

Page 352: par. 1: Footnote "60" should be 66.

Page 353: below section 23: dominance

Another criticism is that there would be nothing to prevent an agency from using force to conquer or absorb weaker agencies until it attained a position of unchallenged domiance, which it could then use to exploit its subjects. In contrast to the previous objection, the Mafia Agency would achieve its domiance through aggression rather than economic competition.

Page 354: par. 1: anarchist

If an agency initiated violence against individuals who were not its customers, continues the anarachist scenario, it would be forced to deal with their defense agencies.

Page 355: bottom par.: situation

The possibility of collusion among several agencies would not alter the situtation.

Page 360: par. 1: governments

There have always been groups of people in human society who have been inadequately protected by their governemnts.

Page 360: par. 1: adequate

Few can contend that American blacks or Russian Jews receive adquate protection from their governments.

Page 361: par. 1: generally

Once the label "public" is attached to a good or service it is genrally assumed that only the government can supply it.

Page 361: bottom par.: rehabilitation

There are four basic paradigms of punishment: rehabilitiation, deterrence, retribution, and restitution.

Page 367: par. 0: rehabilitation

[...] market principles to the problem of aggression provides a built-in rehabilitiation system.

Page 369: par. 1: indiscriminate

These weapons are ipso facto engines of indiscrimini-nate mass destruction [...]

Page 370: bottom par.: necessary

"No army could grow beyond what the market would support, and the market would never support an army larger than was actually necessry for defense, because force is a non-productive expenditure of energy."

Page 372: par. 1: psychological

More importantly, the increasing use of repression and violence against individuals who were clearly innocent and nonviolent could provoke a moral and pscyhological disorientation among the invader’s soldiers charged with carrying out the repressions against the civilian population.

Page 372: par. 1: casualties

And the fact that all of the casualities would be suffered by the civilian population would no doubt take a heavy psychological toll on the members of the civilian defense.

Page 386: bottom par.: externalities

[...] does not believe that it can function effectively in the area of "collective goods" and "externalitites" and concludes that the state is necessary to supply these types of goods and to coordinate policy in this area.

Page 387: par. 1: believes

[...] the anarchist argument will not be persuasive. Similarly, if one belives that certain goods are "inherently collective," rather than simply "legally collective," then the anarchist argument will likewise not be convincing.

Page 389: bottom par.: charities

But then it should also be pointed out that charitites currently collect billions of dollars each year, and there is no reason to believe that this figure would be lower in a taxless society.

Page 390: right before list: possibilities

This creates four possiblities:

Page 391: under section f: proposition

But the position of the natural rights anarchist hinges on the pro-positon that, given his moral principles, government is, ipso facto, morally unjustifiable.


Page 17-18 in the text is missing Footnote 59. I disabled Footnote 59 in the footnote section.

Page 160: Footnote 32 is disabled, because it does not exist in the footnote section.

PDF Pages out of order

PDF Page 255-258 (233-236) should be moved.

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